...
Application & Field Test of High Pressure Electronic Fuel Gas Injection to a Four-Stroke Slow Speed Natural Gas Pipeline Engine
Recent advances in technology for the gas engine industry have led to application of electronically controlled fuel gas injection systems for natural gas fueled pipeline engines. Dresser-Rand Company (D-R) pioneered the advances with the first commercial “cam-less” engines beginning in 1993 using the EFGI™ System operating at conventional fuel pressures. Financial support and research initiatives from the pipeline industry dating back to about the same time led to investigations of the benefits of fuel injection at elevated pressures. Test stand results seemed to promise multiple benefits ranging from improved emissions to reduced fuel rates to enhanced performance. More recently, field experience has borne out much of the initial promise of fuel injection at elevated pressures, though the experience has previously been limited to two-cycle machines. There is much concern over the availability of technology to address both increasingly stringent NOx regulations and the pending prospect of simultaneous reductions in other pollutants for the family of older four-cycle engines, many of which are D-R heritage, Ingersoll-Rand nameplates. Certain pending technological needs elicited El Paso's interest in hosting a test location for a D-R early generation four-stroke application. These engines characteristically exhibit poor mixing and low in-cylinder turbulence that limits the performance of convention Low Emission Combustion (LEC) technology (such as precombustion chambers) to reductions in NOx on the order of a factor of two or three, sometimes less. Moreover, reductions in NOx with LEC, even with later generation better mixed four-cycles, typically comes at the expense of partial oxidation product species in the exhaust. These exhaust products, CO and unburned hydrocarbons, are generally understood to be surrogates for HAPs, at least on a screening basis. El Paso and D-R decided to focus upon the first application of electronic fuel injection at elevated pressures to t
Price: 195.00