Reciprocating compressors and engines have many predictable failure modes which can be detected and corrected before they significantly affect the machines performance or availability. This short course introduces data collection and analysis techniques that can be used to detect: compressor rod failures, valve leaks, ring leaks, and valve dynamics problems: compressor horsepower and capacity inefficiencies from valve leaks, ring leaks, and pulsation; engine mechanical failures like liner scoring, valve train condition, wrist pin knocks and piston slap, and engine combustion inefficiencies from ignition timing and firing problems, power cylinder unbalance, and port and valve dynamics. The course focuses on the scientific and physical principles at play rather than on a specific tool. Using the problem-solving techniques outlined in this course, participants will be able to determine what measurements to take, where and how to take them and how to convert the data into intelligence about their machines condition and performance. This course introduces methods for performing engine and compressor economic analysis and how economic results are reported.